10 Países sob risco extremo de falta d´água

10 Countries Under Extreme Risk of Water Shortages
Probably when they say that the Third World War will be by water, yes it may be, since the lack of water has caused some setbacks between countries whose source of water or rivers are born abroad, and to retain them or simply pollute these rivers .
More than half is in the Middle East, a region where every drop may emerge as a new source of conflict. 
 The Water Crisis is beginning only.

1. Bahrain

Desalination plants remain the major source of water in Bahrain.
The poorest country in the Middle East is also the one that suffers most from water shortages, according to Maplecroft's ranking. More than half of the territory of Bahrain is desert or semidesert. Amid growing demand for the resource, combined with population growth, experts fear the appearance of water conflicts in the region that lives primarily from oil exports. Inside, a little wetter, it produces sorghum (a cereal) cotton for domestic consumption and for export, but with difficulty.

2. Qatar
Qatar lack of water
In Qatar, the water shortage is appointed by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) as the main problem. The absence of perennial rivers causes agriculture is almost entirely dependent irrigation with pumped water. It is estimated that Qatar will be depleted aquifers between 20 and 30 years if kept current rates of withdrawal of groundwater. Furthermore, the increase in urban and rural development has led to the pollution sources.

3. Kuwait

Water Tower
Water Towers in Kuwait.
The small country of the Middle East and oil flows king "extreme risk" of water shortages, according to the report by Maplecroft. Surrounded by desert, Kuwait is considered the driest country in the world and the only one where there is fresh water. There, along its 18,000 km ² of territory, no reserves, rivers or lakes, or even underground aquifers of fresh water.
Approximately 75% of the drinking water consumed in the country needs to be desalinated or imported. This is a strategic issue due to the high temperature region, the lack of rain and deterioration of soil for cultivation. The scarcity of freshwater is even the main obstacle to the development of agriculture in the country.

4. Libya

Libyan water transfer project.
As a desert country, Libya suffers to find fresh water. Its water resources, and limited, are unevenly distributed over the territory. To get an idea, surface water accounts for less than 3% of the total consumption of the country. Already the underground aquifers realize 97% of the supply for agriculture, industry and domestic use. Since 1960, however, in water levels see varying from year to year due to intensive irrigation. The annual drop in water levels ranging between 0.5 m and 5 m, which often leads to drying of aquifers or surface allows the invasion of saline water.

5. Djibouti

The fifth country to the brink of drought, according to the ranking of Maplecroft, a neighbor of Ethiopia and Somalia. With hot, dry climate throughout the year, Dijibouti lacks perennial rivers and registers only 150 mm of rain per year - a volume that a single strong storm dumps on St. Paul in just 24 hours. Worse, in Dijibouti, this water evaporates before even reaching the groundwater, where access by local communities, as well as for agricultural production and poor small scale, is not easy.

6. UAE - United Arab Emirates

Petrol water in Arab Emirates
Petrol or Water? What it is most important?
Water scarcity is one of the issues that have given more technological options UAE, the Arabian Gulf confederation formed by Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah, Ajman, Umm al-Quwain, Ras al-Khaimah and Fujairah. The country's climate is arid, with very high temperatures in summer.
To circumvent this scenario all favorable, the Emirates have invested in units of desalinating seawater. Only Dubai will invest about $ 20 million this system over the next seven years. By 2025, etima that will need to invest $ 200 million in infrastructure programs and wastewater treatment.

7. Yemen

The Yemen is the seventh nation in the world at extreme risk from drying out. Held rhythms current extraction wells that supply the capital Sanaa can practically desparecer the next ten years. Civil conflicts are the main effect of a water supply that does not track population growth, one of the highest in the world, with a growth rate of 3.46 per cent in 2008.

8. Saudi Arabia

Largest desalination plant in Medle Oest
Largest desalination plant in the World.
Saudi Arabia is another country that lives the water crisis dramatically. For lack of surface water bodies in the drinking water for consumption and other agricultural and industrial activities is almost entirely guaranteed by underground springs. Today, 90% of water from deep wells is used for agricultural purposes. The problem is that this feature already precariously low, has been plagued for decades by conflict in the Persian Gulf and the infiltration of pollutants from agricultural activity itself. As a result, the country began to seek new sources of water movement that can result in points of political tension and conflict with their neighbors.

9. Oman

Uncertainty hangs over the water resources of this small Arab country. Drought and a limited set of rains help increase the pressures on the water supply for agricultural use and also home. The soil of Oman is increasingly salinized by unbridled exploitation and poorly coordinated underground reserves of fresh water, which often allows saltwater intrusion into groundwater coastal plains.

10. Egypt

Summers stringent, increasing demand and steady increase in rates make the situation of water supply in Egypt rather complicated. Insufficient sanitation systems at large scale and less than 15% of the population relies on treated sewage. During the summer of 2008, many people came to drink water directly from the Nile itself, which caused a series of infections.
In many cases, rural areas where there is no plumbing, waste products are open, contaminating soil and consequently scarce groundwater. Access to the River Nile, without which Egypt would be a mere desert, is also increasingly disputed by other countries such as Uganda, Ethiopia, Rwanda and Tanzania. The entire Egyptian population, estimated at 80 million inhabitants, removes 90% of the Nile water resources.

Source: maplecroft.com by Water Stress Index 2012


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